A Primer of Multicast Routing (SpringerBriefs in Computer by Eric Rosenberg

By Eric Rosenberg

While unicast routing determines a direction from one resource node to at least one vacation spot node, multicast routing determines a direction from one resource to many locations, or from many resources to many locations. We survey multicast routing tools for while the set of locations is static, and for whilst it really is dynamic. whereas lots of the tools we evaluation are tree established, a few non-tree tools also are mentioned. We survey effects at the form of multicast timber, hold up limited multicast routing, aggregation of multicast site visitors, inter-domain multicast, and multicast digital deepest networks. We specialise in easy algorithmic ideas, and mathematical versions, instead of implementation point protocol information. Many traditionally very important equipment, whether now not presently used, are reviewed to provide standpoint at the evolution of multicast routing.

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A forwarding node reads the balanced parentheses once to identify its outgoing arcs and the encoding of subtrees to be forwarded to its children. Fig. 14 Tree encoding example Fig. 7 The Shape of Multicast Trees In this section we present both empirical and theoretical results describing the shape of multicast trees. Several metrics can be used to describe a set of trees, including (i ) depth, (ii ) degree frequency (the percentage of nodes with degree j, for j = 1, 2, · · ·), and (iii ) average degree (the expected value of the degree frequency distribution).

Each node knows the priority values of the nodes that are core candidates, and a join is sent to the (unicast) address of the reachable candidate node with the highest priority. With this approach, if the core fails, a set of disjoint CBTs will be created, with each non-core node belonging to exactly one CBT. It is also possible to have multiple active cores for a single CBT. This may be desirable if the receivers span a wide geographic area. The set of active core nodes must be interconnected.

The method generates an (s, g) broadcast tree, rooted at n(s) and spanning the entire network, and (s, g) packets are flooded over this tree. In this broadcast tree, each node sends (s, g) packets to all its downstream PIM neighbors, which in general might cause a given node to receive the same packet from two upstream neighbors. If two or more routers on a common subnet receive an (s, g) packet from upstream neighbors, we want only one router to forward the packet onto the subnet. This is accomplished using an assert mechanism, which selects the router on the subnet with the smallest unicast cost to the source node.

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