By Martín Abadi, Luca Cardelli
Procedural languages are usually good understood and their formal foundations solid within the varieties of numerous lambda-calculi. For object-oriented languages but the state of affairs isn't as simple. during this publication the authors suggest and enhance a special method by way of constructing item calculi during which gadgets are handled as primitives. utilizing item calculi, the authors may be able to clarify either the semantics of items and their typing ideas and reveal the best way to strengthen all the most crucial ideas of object-oriented programming languages: self, dynamic dispatch, sessions, inheritance, secure and personal tools, prototyping, subtyping, covariance and contravariance, and technique specialization. Many researchers and graduate scholars will locate this a massive improvement of the underpinnings of object-oriented programming.
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Additional info for A theory of Objects
Implicit forms of embedding inheritance can be understood as ways of extending copies of existing objects with new attributes. In the explicit version of embedding, we designate methods and fields to be copied from other specific objects. m( .. set(n) in the set method. set(n). Moreover, the code of set is embedded in reCellExp, so it is not affected by updates to the cell object. The code for the get method is rather verbose, given that its only purpose is to redirect an invocation. In practice, we could adopt an abbreviation such as: method get copied from cell; However, we still need the general embed construct for the set method.
As in ). According to our definitions, covariance of method argument types is statically unsound: if left unchecked, it may result in unpredictable behavior. 7 Method Specialization In our discussion of subclasses we have taken the simplest approach to overriding, requiring that an overriding method has exactly the same type as the overridden method. This condition can be relaxed to allow method specialization, that is, to allow an overriding method to adopt different argument and result types, specialized for the subclass.
End; ObjectOperator P2[P -<: MaxProtocol] is .. end; Then we can instantiate PI to PI [MinMax], and P2 to P2 [MinMaxProtocol]. These two forms of parameterization seem to be equally expressive in practice. The first one is called F-bounded parameterization [35, 38, 75]. The second form is higher-order bounded parameterization, defined via pointwise subtyping of type operators; we treat it formally in Part III. See  for a comparison between these two forms of parameterization. Instead of working with type operators, a programming language supporting subprotocols may conveniently define a matching relation (denoted by <#) directly over types.