By Kapil Kapoor, World Bank
Read or Download Africa's experience with structural adjustment: proceedings of the Harare seminar, May 23-24, 1994, Parts 63-288 PDF
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Additional resources for Africa's experience with structural adjustment: proceedings of the Harare seminar, May 23-24, 1994, Parts 63-288
Even in the case of these crops, long-term profitability would depend upon the future cost of production and the likely response of other countries in the world. With regards to manufactured exports, several representatives of the private sector pointed out that while adjustment programs emphasized the need to "level the playing field" within African economies, the international trading arena was still far from level, notwithstanding the current efforts being made under the new GATT agreement. Consequently, even as African economies were bringing down tariff barriers and doing away with export subsidies, they were encountering substantial problems in penetrating the international market on account of a variety of tariff and non-tariff barriers.
S. Market. Tyler Biggs, Gail R. Moody, Jan-Hendrik van Leeuwen, and E. Diane White No. 243 Liberalizing Trade in Services. Bernard Hoekman and Pierre Sauvé No. 244 Women in Higher Education: Progress, Constraints, and Promising Initiatives. K. Subbarao, Laura Raney, Halil Dundar, and Jennifer Haworth No. 245 What We Know About Acquisition of Adult Literacy: Is There Hope? Helen Abadzi No. 246 Formulating a National Strategy on Information Technology: A Case Study of India. Nagy Hanna No. 247 Improving the Transfer and Use of Agricultural Information: A Guide to Information Technology.
As a result, the incidence of poverty increased by more than 50 percent between 1985 and 1988. The increase in poverty was not a result of redistribution of income from the poor to the rich, but a drop in income that affected all sectors and income groups. Outside of Africa, countries that have been most successful in attacking poverty have encouraged development that makes efficient use of the poor's labour primarily agricultural development and labor-intensive exports while at the same time investing to improve human capital.