Application of Transition Metal Catalysts in Organic by Prof. L. Brandsma, Prof. H. D. Verkruijsse, Prof. S. F.

By Prof. L. Brandsma, Prof. H. D. Verkruijsse, Prof. S. F. Vasilevsky (auth.)

Homogeneous catalysis is a vital approach for the synthesis of high-valued chemical substances. L. Brandsma has conscientiously chosen and checked the experimental approaches illustrating the catalytic use of copper, nickel, and palladium compounds in natural synthesis. All tactics are on a preparative scale, make monetary use of solvents and catalysts, steer clear of poisonous components and feature excessive yields.

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Example text

After separation of the layers, four extractions with ether were carried out. Each organic layer was washed twice with a saturated aqueous solution of ammonium chloride (50-ml portions) and the aqueous layers combined with the original one. The combined washings were extracted twice with small portions of ether and the extracts washed once with saturated aqueous ammonium chloride. The combined organic solutions (almost colourless) were dried over anhydrous MgS04 and subsequently concentrated in vacuo (in the last stage p < 1 mmHg).

2 ppm. Notes: 1. Since contact of the skin with 35% hydrogen peroxide causes very painful white spots, protection of skin and eyes is essential. 2. If too much of hydrogen peroxide is added at low temperatures, the reaction may become very vigorous and no longer controllable at somewhat higher temperatures. Temperature observation after each addition therefore is absolutely necessary. 2 2,5-Dibromothiophene (J 48 % aq. 50 molar (thiophene). Apparatus: 500-ml round-bottomed, three-necked flask, equipped with a dropping funnel, an efficient mechanical stirrer and a thermometer-outlet combination.

After the addition, the cooling bath was removed and the temperature of the colourless solution allowed to rise to -10°C. The acid hydrolysis and work-up were carried out in a way similar to the procedure for 2-thiopheneboronic acid. The yield of white crystalline material was 85%. The product was used as such for cross-couplings. It should be stored in the refrigerator. 4 {2-Methoxyphenyl)boronic Acid 0- OCH 3 ~;} n-BuLi Sr THF-hexane • Scale, equipment and performance: Same as in preceding experiments.

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