By Yiqing Lin, Waleed H. Abdulla
This ebook illustrates the widely used and novel techniques of audio watermarking for copyrights security. the writer examines the theoretical and useful step-by-step advisor to the subject of knowledge hiding in audio sign akin to tune, speech, broadcast. The booklet covers new suggestions constructed via the authors are totally defined and MATLAB courses, for audio watermarking and audio caliber tests and likewise discusses tools for objectively predicting the perceptual caliber of the watermarked audio signals.
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Additional resources for Audio Watermark: A Comprehensive Foundation Using MATLAB
This indicates that the sensitivity to frequency changing of HAS at low phons is relatively higher than high phons. Hence, complex sounds with identical frequency and phase components might sound different due to variations in loudness . 2 Hearing Range and Threshold in Quiet Human hearing spreads widely from 20 Hz to 20 kHz in frequency, as well as ranging from about 0 dB up to 120 dB in SPL. The most sensitive part is between 100 Hz and 8 kHz for human speech. 6 shows hearing range of human, where different hearing thresholds are sketched in SPL curves as function of frequency.
However, such audibility tests are not only costly and time-consuming, but also heavily depend on the subjects and surrounding conditions . Therefore, the industry desires the use of objective evaluation tests to achieve automatic perceptual measurement. , assessing the perceptual quality of audio data via a stimulant ear, such as Evaluation of Audio Quality (EAQUAL) , Perceptual Evaluation of Audio Quality (PEAQ) , and Perceptual Model-Quality Assessment (PEMO-Q) . Moreover, objective quality measures are exploited as an alternative approach to quantify the dissimilarities caused by audio watermarking.
So far, relatively few studies in NMN and TMN are carried out. Under the case of NMN, the masking thresholds heavily rely on phase relationship between the masker and maskee. In other words, different relative phases between the masker and maskee would lead to different values of minimum SMRs. It is reported that measurements for wideband noise have minimum SMRs of about 26 dB [51,73]. As for TMN, the minimum SMR tends to fluctuate between 20 and 30 dB . 5 1 2 Frequency of test tone (kHz) 5 10 20 Fig.