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Practical applications of electrolysis include the electroplating of metals, the reﬁning of copper and the extraction of aluminium from its ore. Batteries 21 An electrolyte is a compound which will undergo electrolysis. Examples include salt water, copper sulphate and sulphuric acid. The electrodes are the two conductors carrying current to the electrolyte. The positive-connected electrode is called the anode and the negative-connected electrode the cathode. When two copper wires connected to a battery are placed in a beaker containing a salt water solution, current will ﬂow through the solution.
Across each lamp. 37 (i) Each lamp has 240 V across it and thus each will glow brilliantly at their rated voltage. 1 Introduction to capacitors A capacitor is an electrical device that is used to store electrical energy. Next to the resistor, the capacitor is the most commonly encountered component in electrical circuits. Capacitors are used extensively in electrical and electronic circuits. c. outputs, they are used in telecommunication equipment — such as radio receivers — for tuning to the required frequency, they are used in time delay circuits, in electrical ﬁlters, in oscillator circuits, and in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in medical body scanners, to name but a few practical applications.
These small cells are short-circuited by the electrolyte, with the result that localized currents ﬂow causing corrosion. This action is known as local action of the cell. This may be prevented by rubbing a small amount of mercury on the zinc surface, which forms a protective layer on the surface of the electrode. When two metals are used in a simple cell the electrochemical series may be used to predict the behaviour of the cell: (i) The metal that is higher in the series acts as the negative electrode, and vice-versa.