Bioactive Heterocycles VI: Flavonoids and Anthocyanins in by Noboru Motohashi

By Noboru Motohashi

Heterocyclic chemistry is the most important department of chemistry protecting two-thirds of the chemical literature and this e-book covers the recent subject matters of frontier learn summarized by means of reputed scientists within the field.

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Extra info for Bioactive Heterocycles VI: Flavonoids and Anthocyanins in Plants, and Latest Bioactive Heterocycles I (Topics in Heterocyclic Chemistry)

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7 Eyesight Anthocyanins might also improve eyesight. Thirty-six people were examined for their ability to adapt to the light and dark both before and after the oral administration of bilberry anthocyanins. For several hours after the administration of the anthocyanins, their eyesight was improved significantly, although the effect declined within 24 h [51]. Anthocyanoside extracts of Vaccinium Myrtillus improved night vision [52]. Healthy human subjects were tested for dark adaptation, video display terminal (VDT) work-induced transient refractive alteration, and subjective asthenopia symptoms (visual fatigue) after intaking the black currant anthocyanosides (BCAs).

This has given rise to what is now popularly termed the “French paradox”. The cardioprotective effect might be attributed to the antioxidants present in the polyphenol fractions of the red wines. The grapes are rich in diverse antioxidants such as resveratrol, catechin, epicatechin and proanthocyanidins. Interestingly, among these antioxidative phytochemicals, resveratrol is present mainly in the grape skin, whereas proanthocyanidin is present in the seeds. It has been shown that the red wine extract as well as resveratrol and proanthocyanidins are equally effective in reducing myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury, suggesting that these polyphenolic antioxidants might play an important role in the cardioprotection [98].

This might be related to the presence of soy in this bread [59]. 9 Antiulcer Activity The bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) has traditionally been used to treat ulcers, because bilberry might stimulate the production of the stomach mucus and 22 N. Motohashi · H. Sakagami protect the stomach from injury. The antiulcer effects of 3,5,7-trihydroxy-2(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-benzopyrylium chloride (IdB 1027) in bilberry were estimated in various experimental models. The oral administration of this anthocyanidin could antagonize the gastric ulcerations induced by pylorus ligation, stress, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ethanol, reserpine, histamine and duodenal ulceration induced by mercaptamine (cysteamine).

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